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Engineered Wood Installation Guide

Layout

Working Lines

Working lines are guidelines drawn or marked on the subfloor. Some are critical measurements, such as the primary or secondary lines, while others can be placed as guides to stop nailing or spreading adhesive, or to aid in layout of the different parts of the floor.

A. Working lines should be measured from the longest, straightest, continuous line in the room.

  1. On wood subfloors, measure off of subfloor seams or the longest, straightest, continuous wall in the room to find working lines.
  2. On concrete subfloors, measure off of the longest, straightest, continuous wall in the room to find working lines.

B. A chalk line is a very simple tool that performs an essential task: it provides a perfectly straight line. A chalk line with a fine braided string can leave a much finer line for precision work with less ghosting of the chalk.

C. Working lines should be identified on the subfloor by using different colors of chalk or by labeling them to avoid confusion between lines.

D. For working lines that connect to a wall, make a mark on the wall to indicate the line’s location in the event that the working line on the subfloor is covered during installation.

E. To prevent working lines from being erased or worn away, apply a quick-dry aerosol spray poly or lacquer over the lines.

F. When using a sheet-goods vapor retarder, mark your working lines on the subfloor and then transfer those lines to the secured-in-place vapor retarder.

Trammel Points

A. Trammel points (bar and compass) consist of two compass points that are mounted or attached to a beam. They are used in situations where a traditional compass is too small for the area, which makes them ideal for wood flooring. The beam should be a minimum of 4’ in length. A longer beam will be beneficial for larger floor spaces.

B. Trammel points are a simple and accurate method for laying out working lines. They can be used to draw circles or to scribe arcs as reference points for laying out working lines. Attach a pen or pencil to one of the points.

C. To find center and to square any room for a wood floor layout using trammel points, follow these steps:

  1. Measure the width of the room. Measuring from the same wall at opposite ends of the room, measure the width of the room and divide the width by two to find the center point. Mark these points on the subfloor.
  2. Adjust the centerline where necessary to promote a visually attractive layout. Oblique adjustments to compensate for unsquared walls or other permanent fixtures are sometimes necessary. Parallel adjustments to off-center focal points (window, door, or fireplace) are sometimes necessary as well. These conditions should be discussed with the end-user/builder before continuing the installation.
  3. Snap a line across the length of the room, connecting the center-point marks. This line is your primary line.
  4. Measure the length of the primary line and divide by two to find the center-point. Mark this point on the subfloor. This point is the now the center point of the room (point “C”).
  5. Place the trammels at a distance approximately half the length of the beam you are using.
  6. Place one trammel point end (to remain fixed in position) on point “C”. From point “C”, use the marking end of the trammel to draw a circle on the subfloor.
  7. Extend the trammel point distance on the beam by approximately 40% (if possible).
  8. Place the trammel point end at one of the locations where the circle intersects the primary line. Use the marking point of the trammel to draw an arc above and an arc below the primary line, as near to perpendicular to the center mark point “C” as possible.
  9. Move the trammel point end to the opposite location where the circle intersects the primary line. Use the marking point of the trammel to draw an arc above and an arc below the primary line, as near to perpendicular to the center mark point “C” as possible, crossing the marks made in the previous step.
  10. Snap a line across the length of the room, perpendicular to the primary line, connecting the marks. This line is your secondary line, and should be perpendicular to the primary line.

D. You can also square a room or check that your lines are perpendicular by using the 3-4-5 rule.

  1. 3-4-5 rule: This rule says that if one side of a triangle measures 3 and the adjacent side measures 4, then the diagonal between those two points must measure 5 in order for it to be a right triangle.
  2. It doesn’t matter which unit of measurement you use, as long as you keep it the same for all three sides. It can be 3-4-5 feet, 6-8-10 meters, or any multiple of 3-4-5.

Transferring Lines

A. Transfer the lines by using the trammel points at locations along the primary or secondary lines that can allow you to extend the working lines through doorways and into other rooms. Or measure off of the primary or secondary line to determine new working lines that may be extended.

B. Use the same method to square adjoining room with perpendicular lines. Complete this process for each room receiving wood flooring.

C. It is important to not wait until the end to verify lines. If you are off on the first secondary line and then move that to adjoining rooms without verifying, then the lines will be wrong in all rooms. Laying out working lines will help guide the installation.

45° Angles

To create perfect 45° angle lines for diagonal installations, asymmetrical layouts, or for patterned floors, using trammel points:

A. Extend the trammel points on the beam to dissect each quadrant using the same method as detailed in the Trammel Points section

Wall-Layout

A. Choose a starting wall according to the most aesthetically or architecturally important elements in the room, taking into consideration doorways, fireplaces, cabinets, and transitions, as well as the overall squareness of the room. The starting wall will often be the longest unbroken wall in the room.

B. Transfer the working line back to and parallel with the starting wall, allowing necessary expansion space between the starting wall and the edge of the first strip or plank run.

C. Prior to installing the flooring, secure a straight edge (starter board) inside the chalk line to act as a guide and to prevent the row of planks from shifting during installation. The straight edge could be a straight piece of lumber or piece of flooring. This is temporary and will be replaced as the floor is completed.

D. Lay one row of flooring along the entire length of the working line, proceed with the installation.

Center-Layout

A. Beginning the installation from a center-point in the room allows for the installation to progress in two opposite directions.

B. Find the center of the room, square the floor and snap a line down the center of that room.

C. Install a starter/backer board along the line. Fasten the starter/backer board to the subfloor using an appropriate fastening mechanism (wood subfloors may be screwed; concrete subfloors may be set with temporary adhesive or pressure-sensitive tape).

D. Install the first row of wood flooring against the starter board, being careful not to move the starter board when nailing. Generally, the groove of the flooring should be against the starter board.

E. Use the appropriate installation method to install several rows of wood flooring. Use the installation methods detailed in the appropriate section, and per manufacturer instructions.

F. After installing in one direction, remove the starter/backer board.

G. Install a spline or a slip tongue in the groove of the board that was against the straightedge. Put wood flooring adhesive down the entire length of the groove before installing the spline.

H. To keep the spline in alignment for the next flooring board, use a scrap piece of wood flooring to run along the length of the spline.

I. Install the remaining rows in the opposite direction. Use the installation practices as necessary for the flooring being installed.

J. Runs of flooring should generally be installed straight. Unless otherwise required, the installed wood flooring should not deviate from a straight line more than 3/16” in 10’.

Lasers

A. Caution when using any lasers. Never stare directly at, or direct a laser beam toward any persons or animals, as doing so can lead to serious eye injury or blindness. Read and understand all safety precautions and proper usage of any laser-producing tools.

B. Laser-layout tools can assist in accuracy and speed in floor layout. Most laser layout tools have a primary beam line and a perpendicular beam, and often incorporate a 45-degree beam, as well. More-advanced lasers also have lights to align floor layout to tray ceilings, chandeliers, and other features above the floor.

C. General guidelines for using a laser as a layout tool:

  1. Designate a location flat on the floor within the room.
  2. Place laser targets and align the laser to target both marks.
  3. The width of the laser line changes with increased distance. Accuracy can be affected by any increase in distance measurements.
  4. Mark lines onto the floor accordingly and snap chalk lines.

Not all lasers can establish diagonal lines. To establish a diagonal working line, trammel points or the method described in the following section, “Diagonal Layout,” can be used.

Glue-Down

Many types of floors can be glued down in many different situations. No matter the specific job requirements, there are several items that need to be addressed and followed during each installation. When available, the flooring and adhesive manufacturer’s instructions should always be followed. Follow the adhesive manufacturer installation instructions specifically for substrate preparation and trowel selection. Where manufacturer instructions are unavailable, lack information, or they reference NWFA Guidelines, use the following information.

Substrate Requirements

Wood flooring may be glued down over many substrates, as long as they meet the minimum requirements as detailed in the applicable chapter. Inspect the substrate to ensure it meets all requirements for the flooring being installed.

A. Wood Subfloors (refer to the Wood Subfloors chapter for more detailed information).

  1. Inspect the wood subfloor to ensure it meets all flooring and adhesive manufacturer requirements.
  2. Test the wood subfloor material for compatibility with the adhesive being used. (Some types of wood flooring adhesives do not adhere to some high-performance OSB panels.)
  3. Check that the type and integrity of the wood subfloor is appropriate for the wood floor installation. This includes subfloor thickness and joist/floor truss spacing requirements, maximum vertical deflection requirements, and that it is sound and free from squeaks and noises.
  4. Flatness: The standard for flatness with glue-down installation methods on a wood subfloor is 3/16” in 10’, or 1/8” in 6’.
  5. When testing for moisture, both the wood flooring and the wood subfloor should be evaluated and documented (refer to the Moisture Testing Wood chapter for testing information).
    • IMPORTANT: Never install a wood floor over a known moisture condition. A known moisture condition is one that you are aware of, and could pose future damage to the flooring, the building, or the occupants. It is compulsory practice to always test for moisture regardless of conditions so that any unknown conditions can become known conditions, which then can be handled appropriately. If subfloor moisture becomes a problem after installation, pre-installation moisture testing and documentation will provide a moisture baseline at the time of installation.
  6. All solid and engineered wood flooring being glued down over a wood subfloor should be installed perpendicular to, or on a diagonal to, the joist/floor truss direction for any single-layer subfloor.

B. Concrete subfloors (refer to the Concrete Subfloors chapter for more-detailed information).

  1. Inspect the concrete subfloor to ensure it meets all adhesive and flooring manufacturer requirements.
  2. Address all construction joints on the jobsite. Wood flooring should not bridge these types of joints without allowing for a breaking point. Transitions and/or expansion space should be built into the wood flooring system to avoid potential wood floor damage at these locations in case of future movement.
  3. If any subfloor toppings such as self-levelers, skim-coatings, patches, trowelable underlayments, or floor-fills exist, ensure any sealers or adhesive products are compatible with these toppings.
  4. Removal of any contaminates that may interfere with the adhesive system is required.
  5. Concrete surface profile (CSP): For concrete slabs, the concrete surface profile should be evaluated to ensure it meets the adhesive manufacturer requirements.
  6. Porosity: Nonporous substrates may need to be prepared to an adequate CSP. Refer to the adhesive manufacturer for more detail. Porous substrates may require the use of densifiers/hardeners (compatible with the adhesive system being used).
  7. Flatness: The standard for flatness for a concrete subfloor with glue-down installation methods is 3/16” in 10’ or 1/8” in 6’.
  8. Moisture test the concrete subfloor in relation to the flooring being used. Refer to the Moisture Testing chapter for more information. When testing for moisture, both the wood flooring and the concrete subfloor should be evaluated.
    • Concrete slabs with a calcium chloride reading of greater than 3 lbs/1,000 sf/24 hr are strongly recommended to wait for further drying of the slab, or install/apply a minimum Class I impermeable vapor retarder over the slab according to the adhesive manufacturer’s instructions, prior to installation.
    • Concrete slabs with an in-situ RH reading of greater than 80% are strongly recommended to wait for further drying of the slab, or install/apply a Class I impermeable vapor retarder according to the adhesive manufacturer’s instructions, prior to installation.
    • Always follow the moisture test methods, limitations, and acceptable control of moisture outlined in these instructions in tandem with those of the adhesive manufacturer. The results will help you decide which type of moisture control system will be necessary for the job.

C. Solid board subfloors (refer to the Wood Subfloors chapter for more detailed information).

  1. Unless otherwise directed by the flooring and adhesive manufacturer, do not use the glue-down installation method as the only installation method over solid board subflooring.
  2. Minimum 19/32” subfloor panels should be installed as an overlay to achieve a suitable substrate.

D. Screeds/sleepers (refer to the Screeds/Sleepers chapter for more detailed information).

  1. Full-spread glue-down and nail-assisted glue-down installation methods are appropriate over properly prepared screeds/sleepers embedded in concrete, or when screeds/sleepers have been overlaid with the appropriate wood panel subfloor.

E. Radiant heat (refer to the Radiant Heat chapter for more detailed information).

  1. Confirm the adhesive system being used is compatible with the radiant heating system.
  2. Reduce or turn off heat during installation of the flooring to avoid loss of open/working time, premature drying, and skinning-over of the adhesive. Check with the adhesive manufacturer for minimum/maximum subfloor temperature limitations during the installation.

Adhesives

Adhesive selection is an important step in a glue-down installation.

A. Always use Bedrosian’s ODYN wood flooring adhesive and coordinating tools to install the flooring in order to preserve warranty. (1) ODYN Premium 4 in 1 wood adhesive

B. If another adhesive is being used, always follow the adhesive manufacturer’s instructions for proper use of the adhesive. Use of alternative adhesives will void warranty unless expressly authorized in writing. Please consult your local Bedrosian’s rep for more details.

C. Characteristics of each adhesive, which affect application methods, include flash-time, working time, and adjustability-time.

D. All wood flooring adhesives must be elastomeric, which means they remain flexible and maintain their bond when there is movement in the installed flooring system.

E. Allow the adhesive to reach room temperature before using, unless otherwise directed by the adhesive manufacturer.

F. There are several types of recommended adhesives used to install wood floors.

  1. Modified polymers or silane-modified polymer adhesives are solvent-free and isocyanate-free adhesives. They are easy-to-clean and have low VOCs. These adhesives are typically capable of controlling moisture in concrete when applied in a specific, manufacturer-specified method.
  2. Urethane adhesives are commonly used for wood flooring installations today. They have minimal odor, and are nonflammable. This type of adhesive is moisture-resistant and alkali-resistant, but is more-difficult to clean off of the finished wood surface.
  3. Multi-functional adhesives: These products save time by eliminating multiple steps in the process, ultimately reducing overall costs. Each product has multiple functions, which may include crack bridging, moisture control, sound control, and mold/mildew resistance. These products are often marketed as two-in-ones, three-in-ones, four-in-ones, etc.

Trowel Selection

A. Trowel size dictates the square footage coverage of the adhesive.

B. Bedrosian’s recommends ODYN 1/2” x 1/2” V-notch trowel for all wood flooring wider than 5” or longer than 60”. This size is also the only method by which the installation will benefit from the moisture barrier and sound control properties in Bedrosian’s wood flooring adhesive. Use of another adhesive is not recommended and may void the flooring warranty.

C. It is typically required to occasionally pull boards to check for coverage and adequate adhesive transfer from the substrate to the back of the board. Unless otherwise suggested by the adhesive manufacturer, adhesive coverage should be as follows:

  1. For moisture control, 100% substrate coverage and adhesive transfer is normally required for solid wood flooring product, >95% substrate coverage and adhesive transfer is required for all other wood flooring.
  2. For bonding only, check coverage to ensure there is a minimum of 80% substrate coverage and adhesive transfer for engineered, and >95% for all solid wood flooring.

D. Do not use old or worn-down trowels, as the notches wear down with normal use, consequently decreasing the flow rate of the adhesive.

E. Depending on the application and product being used, the profile of the trowel will be designated for a very specific purpose. Some of the qualities that designate a trowel include the shape and dimensional specifications of the trowel:

Glue-Down Installation

A. Bedrosian’s engineered wood flooring is considered a large plank, and due to dimensional movement relative to temperature and humidity, must be glued down.

B. Where possible and practical, begin the installation at a point opposite of the point of egress in order to minimize walking across a newly glued-down installation. Wall-layout option is the most appropriate for glue-down installations. Refer to the Layout chapter for more-detailed information.

C. Undercut door casings and jambs. Remove any existing base, shoe-mold, or doorway thresholds. These items can be replaced after installation.

D. Snap a working line parallel to the starting wall, accounting for necessary expansion space.

E. Expansion space

  1. Maintain proper expansion space based on the material being installed at all vertical obstructions. Unless otherwise directed by the flooring manufacturer, expansion space left between the flooring and vertical obstructions is generally equal to the thickness of the material being installed.
  2. To minimize expansion on floor spans wider than 20 feet, spacing between rows (within the flooring system) may be needed, depending on the wood species being installed, climate zone, interior climate controls, and the time of year.
    • aExpansion may be built into the solid wood floor using the dimensional change coefficient (DCC) of the species being installed (refer to Moisture and Wood technical publication no. A100).
    • Determine the DCC of the species being installed. Multiply the DCC by the width of the material being installed. Then determine approximately how much you expect the flooring to change moisture content (MC) from one season to the next, and multiply this change in MC by the product of the width and DCC. This will give you an approximation of how much each plank of flooring could shrink/swell from season to season. Use this information to determine approximate internal expansion spacing necessary for the long-term performance of the wood floor.
    • Example: Red Oak DCC = .00369. A 5” solid red oak plank that experiences a 4% change in moisture content, may shrink or swell tangentially approximately 0.0738”. 0.00369 x 5” = 0.01845 x 4% change = 0.0738” of change in dimension.
  3. Where additional internal spacing is required with some solid wood floors, use washers, edge trimmer spline, or other removable spacers to leave expansion space within the flooring system. The end-user must be made aware of these built-in spaces prior to installing them into the floor.

F. Racking

  1. With solid or engineered wood flooring installed over concrete or a wood panel subfloor and joist systems that meets or exceeds minimum requirements, properly staggered end-joints are an appearance/aesthetic consideration only.
  2. When racking (or laying out the floor) prior to installation, be sure to work from multiple bundles or packages to ensure color and length variation.
  3. Flooring warranties do not typically cover materials with visible defects once they are installed. Installation is considered acceptance of the product aesthetic quality.
  4. Distribute lengths randomly and pull from multiple bundles.
  5. Avoid “H” patterns when possible.
  6. Avoid any discernible pattern in adjacent runs such as blatant stair-steps or equal end-joint offsets in sequential rows. Cutting a variety of starter boards from full length boards will assist in “randomizing” joints in products of equal or limited lengths.
  7. End joints of adjacent boards should not be installed in close proximity to each other. In general, End-joint staggering, row-to-row should be a minimum of twice the width of the flooring being installed (e.g., 6” stagger for 3” wide material). Wider width materials may be more difficult to maintain these staggers due to the product length limitations.

G. Precut and lay out a starter row along the entire length of the working line.

H. An anchor row is sometimes beneficial to the installation.

  1. An anchor row is one that may be set and secured to the substrate to provide a stationary point to be pushed against so flooring doesn’t move during installation of the remaining floor.
  2. Creating an anchor row may include setting a section of flooring in the flooring adhesive the day prior to beginning the install or by setting a temporary starter row using a fastening mechanism, pressure sensitive tape, or temporary adhesive to create a backer for the flooring to be pulled against.

I. Many wood flooring adhesives are designed to be used in a wet-lay installation method, where you are able to spread the adhesive and begin to install the flooring immediately. Some adhesives may require flash-time prior to laying the flooring into the adhesive. Read the adhesive instructions prior to installation of any wood flooring.

J. Spread the adhesive with the recommended ½” x 15/32” V-notch trowel. Only apply as much adhesive as can be installed within the adhesive open-time period (see manufacture’s recommendations for open time based on adhesive type). Avoid excessive adhesive thickness and inconsistent application by passing the trowel evenly through the adhesive as recommended by the manufacturer.

K. Lay the flooring into the adhesive, in accordance with the wood flooring and adhesive manufacturer’s instructions. Follow the flooring manufacturer’s instruction for tongue and groove (T&G) direction and placement.

L. Correctly position the flooring and press down firmly.

M. Tapping blocks, pull-bars, and straps may be used to drive flooring tight during installation. Be certain to only use tapping blocks, pull-bars, or straps that do not damage the flooring.

N. Runs of flooring should generally be installed straight. Unless otherwise required, the installed wood flooring should not deviate from a straight line more than 3/16” in 10’.

O. Periodically lift boards immediately after installation and at regular intervals to ensure proper slab coverage and adhesive transfer to the back of the flooring from subfloor is achieved.

P. Immediately roll and cross roll flooring with 75-100 lbs. roller within 2 hours to ensure proper adhesive transfer

T. Clean all adhesive residue from the flooring surface using a proper adhesive remover as recommended by the adhesive manufacturer. Use the recommended cleaner to remove any residue that may have been left from the proper adhesive remover. Avoid products or processes that could damage the finished flooring.

U. Allow the floor to set for at least 24 hours, or as otherwise directed by the adhesive manufacturer, before allowing foot traffic.

Magnifica Installation Guide

Unique Applications

  • Counters, Floors, Walls, Shower Walls, Lids, Table Tops, Benches, Fireplace Surrounds, BBQ's, everywhere!
  • Exterior Walls, Façades, Floors (Honed), and Counter Tops
  • UV Stable – Use Outdoors
  • Furniture Facings
  • Integral Sinks
  • Freeze – Thaw Stable (Use in Extreme Conditions)

Storage

  • When storing vertically, use a secure A-Frame that is anchored firmly to the ground.
  • We recommend using a backer slab or other full coverage support, to provide additional support and stability.
  • Magnifica can be stored outside.
  • Avoid storing slabs in pole racks. Only store on secure A-Frames with proper backing that supports the entire slab.
  • Magnifica slabs should never come in direct contact with metal on A-Frames or any storage equipment. Use wood, plastic, or rubber as a barrier to avoid coming in direct contact with any metal.

Pre-Fabrication Inspection

Prior to fabrication, closely examine the material for any flaws. If any imperfections are found, do not cut or fabricate the slab.

  • Addressing any concerns beforehand is crucial before proceeding with the material cutting, as the act of cutting signifies acceptance.
  • Clean the slabs.
  • Check the slabs for color, voids, chips, or other defects.
  • Check the thickness (12MM).

Release the Tension

  • All 12mm slabs MUST be rectified by the fabricator first before another cut(s) is made.
  • Minimum of 1" relief cut on all 4 sides is MANDATORY.
  • Start cuts at a slow speed and finish cuts at a slow speed.
  • No drop in cuts or plunge cuts.

Water Jet Cutting

  • 1/4" cement board to create a flat surface under the material is recommended.
  • All slabs MUST be rectified by the fabricator first before any other cuts are made.
  • A minimum of 1" relief cut on all 4 sides is MANDATORY.
  • Pierce the material at low pressure.
  • Recommend cutting pilot holes in all 4 corners of cutouts to release any pressure.
  • 80 grit sand is recommended.

Bridge Saw Cutting

  • Only use a blade for Porcelain.
  • Check the cutting surface is perfectly flat and without residues.
  • Check that the support is sufficiently resistant to prevent any possible breakage.
  • Use the max water possible for cooling the slab being cut and to make sure the flow is directly on the cutting area.
  • Sharpen the blade frequently.
  • See the recommendations of the blade manufacturer for RPM’s and speed per minute

Fabrication & Cut Outs

  • Always wet cut and polish, never work on Magnifica dry.
  • Put all pieces together in the shop on tables to match edges and to check all pieces are correct to measurements before taking out to install.
  • Edge Detail Options:
    • Miter
    • Flat Polished
  • All L-Shapes should be avoided and any 90 degree corners need a minimum radius of 3/8", including sinks, cooktops, & outlets.

Fabrication & Cut Outs (Continued)

  • All sinks and cooktops should start with minimum 1" pilot holes on ALL 4 corners.
  • Never use a torch or heat source on Magnifica.
  • Always have & use your PPE.
  • When gluing miter returns, always grind the edges to make them rough. Then clean with acetone before applying epoxy.
  • Pigment needs to match the backround color of Magnifica, not the face.
  • Make sure all pieces are dry before gluing.
  • After the epoxy is dry, radius the top edge 1/8" to avoid chipping, also recommend 3/16" radius or bevel on undermount sinks and backsplashes.

Transportation & Safety

  • All Magnifica products should be transported to jobsite on a properly rated A-Frame.
  • Never transport Magnifica flat in the back of a truck or van.
  • Ensure all pieces are properly supported when transporting.
  • Always load your edge detail pieces up, not putting all the weight on the mitered apron.
  • Always have and use your PPE.

Installation

  • Magnifica is a large format porcelain tile and should be installed like tile.
  • Magnifica is recommended to be installed with a mortar & not with silicone.
  • Mortar is to always be notched the same direction on the substrate and the back of the Magnifica, with no "spot" setting. Both the slab & substrate need 100% full coverage.
  • For wall and floor installation standards see ANSI A108.19 for interior and A108.20 for exterior vertical and overhead standards.
  • Maximum allowable variation in flatness for ALL surfaces is 1/8" in 10 feet, and 1/16" in 2 feet from the required plane when measured from the high points in the surface.

Seams & Grout Joints

  • Magnifica should be seamed the same way as quartz and stone counters. Pigment color should match the face of the material.
  • For counter do not use common items like razor blades to check for seam flatness.
  • Seam Setters (or the like) need to be used to ensure flatness on counters.
  • Micro bevel your material to avoid chipping at the seams & grout joints.
  • Grout joints of 1/16" is for interior walls and to be filled with epoxy grout.
  • Grout joints of 1/8" for exterior walls and counters to be filled with epoxy grout.

Tips from the Trade

  • Substrate prep is a critical key factor for a successful installation. Take the proper time to ensure the substrate is prepped properly for install.
  • Use products & tooling specified for large format porcelain.
  • Layouts and seam placements should be viewed and approved by the client prior to fabrication.
  • Take your time with porcelain. Quality comes with patience & passion.
  • For any technical questions, training inquiries, or any other questions please reach out to your local Bedrosians Branch or Representative.

Revera Installation Guidelines

Prior to fabrication, closely examine the slab for any flaws. If any imperfections are found, do not cut or fabricate the slab. Immediately contact the Revera™ Product Warranty Department. For complete information, please visit www.bedrosians.com.

This is not a comprehensive document and is solely intended to provide basic installation guidelines for your Revera™. This document does not replace normal industry standards for installation and fabrication. Revera™ must be installed by professionally licensed fabricators and installers (the “Professionals”). Revera™ is not responsible for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the misuse of information contained in this document. The company reserves the right to change or modify this document or its electronic version from time to time without notice. Any fabrication and installation damage, errors, or omissions are not the responsibility of Revera™.

  1. Storage
    • Vertical storage is recommended.
    • Revera™ should be stored between 25 - 130 degrees Fahrenheit.
    • Slabs should be stored “face to face”.
    • Slabs should be stored so that the finished face is not exposed to the direct sunlight. Do not store slabs outdoors. Exposure to direct sunlight may discolor the slabs.
  2. Dimensions and Thicknesses
    • Revera™ is available in 2cm and 3cm slab thicknesses.
    • The thickness may vary by +/- 1.5mm.
    • The length may vary by +/- 20mm.
    • The width may vary by +/- 10mm.
    • The greater the thickness, the higher the strength and thermal resistance of the slab.
  3. Pre-Fabrication Inspection
    • Clean the slabs.
    • Check the slabs in a well-lit area for any cracks, chips, voids, or other defects.
    • Check the color of the slabs.
    • Check for any other visual imperfections.
    • If a defect is found, do not fabricate the product.
    • Any issues must be addressed prior to cutting. Cutting the material constitutes acceptance.
  4. Seam Placement
    • Place seams to maximize yield of the material and minimize the number of seams in the countertop.
    • Do not place seams over dishwashers or trash compactors. Such placement voids warranty.
    • Avoid placing seams within 18" of a finished end.
    • All corners must have a minimum radius of 3/8".
  5. Fabrication
    • Obtain detailed drawings depicting the layout, seam placement, sinks, appliances, and other information.
    • Obtain proper tools and safety equipment to produce a quality-finished product.
    • Measure all sides.
    • Measure all diagonal lengths.
    • Measure the midpoints of the cutouts and setbacks.
    • Measure the inside dimensions of the base cabinets where the cutouts will settle.
    • Measure the clearance from the doors and drawers to the top of the face frames to ensure that laminations won’t interfere with their operation.
    • Measure for overhangs at standing appliances for clearance and fit.
    • Note any curvature of the walls or misalignment.
    • All corners must have a minimum radius of 3/8".
    • All corners must have a minimum radius of 3/8".
    • Always wet cut and wet polish.
    • Always use a diamond pad.
    • Though not required, we recommend a quartz sealer for your product, such as STONETECH Quartz & Porcelain Tile Sealer or Miracle Sealants 511 Quartz Countertop Sealer to ensure ultimate protection for your slabs.
    • Never use a torch or heat source on the Revera™.
  6. Lamination
    • Before seaming Revera™ edges together, grind the edges to an even finish.
    • Notch and groove both pieces to allow for glue.
    • Before applying adhesive, clean both surfaces. Never use acetone.
    • All pieces must be clean & dry prior to gluing.
    • Use pigmented adhesives to help minimize seam appearance.
  7. Transportation and Safety
    • Ensure proper transportation of Revera™ slabs to protect from breakage.
    • Ensure the use of a properly rated A-Frame.
    • Ensure accessibility for transporting Revera™ through parking areas, doorways, hallways, and surrounding areas into your desired installation space.
    • Keep installation zone clean to prevent accidents.
    • Ensure all electrical and plumbing fixtures are in good condition and positioned well.
    • Keep children away from installation zones.
    • Always wear protective clothing such as masks, safety glasses, and gloves
  8. Application
    • Revera™ can be applied to countertops, walls, shower walls, residential floors, or residential shower floors (velvet and brushed finish only). Interior applications only.
    • Revera™ can be applied on level cement, plywood, or plaster surfaces with accurate preparation as well as correct grout and adhesives.
    • Sinks and Basins: For over or under-mount sinks, we recommend you seek guidance from the sink manufacturer.
    • Cabinets must be level, flat, and secured to a back wall.
      • Old cabinets: Remove any debris that will prevent countertop stability.
      • New cabinets: Remove any staples or screws prior to installation.
    • Depending on the application, you may be required to provide overhang support for the countertop.
    • No mechanical fasteners such as screws and nails should be installed into Revera™.
    • Allow 1/8" minimum clearance between the slab and any wall surfaces. Use a nonsanded colored caulking to match your Revera™ slab.
    • Allow range of 1/8" to 1/2" clearance between the slab bullnose and the face of the cabinet.
    • Allow range of 1/8" to 1/2" clearance between the slab bullnose and the face of the cabinet.
    • Left to right support should be no greater than 12" distance apart. A hollow cabinet will not provide sufficient support. The Professionals must verify that there is adequate support and zero movement.
    • The distance between front and back support should be no greater than 36" distance apart. The Professionals must verify that there is adequate support and zero movement.
    • Revera™ is extremely heavy and requires full support. Walls and cabinets must be structurally sound, properly installed, straight, leveled, and square. The lack of proper support may cause poor installation, poor seam fit, or inconsistent countertop overhang and placement.
    • Revera™ requires a built up perimeter support or full sub top.
      1. Perimeter Support
        • Recommended material- 5/8" or 3/4" or 2".
        • Moisture resistant MDF.
        • Moisture resistant plywood. Particleboard is not acceptable for this application.
        • Wood strips should be installed continuously along the front and back of the cabinets and crosswise (front to back) at the ends, and a maximum of 3' over cabinet partitions intervals.
        • Front-to-back support is also recommended under and along both sides of all seams.
        • Attach the material tightly to the cabinets. Ensure the material lays flat and leveled.
      2. Full Sub Top (for use with 2cm thick material)
        • 5/8" Moisture resistant MDF.
        • 5/8" Moisture resistant plywood. Particleboard is not acceptable for use as support.
        • Do not seam the sub top material in the same location as the countertop material. Avoid seams in cabinetry whenever possible.
        • Attach the material tightly to the cabinets. Ensure the material lays flat and leveled.
        • For 3cm material ensure that cabinetry can support the weight & that the cabinets are 100% secure.
    • Counters may discolor over time when exposed to direct sunlight. Consumers should not install Revera™ on countertops that receive only partial UV ray exposure as a color difference will occur over time.
  9. Adhesives
    • A translucent 100% silicone adhesive should be used to secure the slab to the supporting structure. Such products tend to take on the color of the stone and create a more acceptable caulk joint. Do not use an oil-based adhesive!
    • Adhesive should be applied at least every 12" around the perimeter of the slab.
    • Adhesive should be applied at least every 5" at joints and corners.
    • High-quality Polyester adhesives designed for stone surfaces are the most versatile adhesive for seaming materials together due to their fast cure time, ability to color match, and great bonding qualities to engineered stone. The Professionals must verify use of high-quality polyester adhesives. The Professionals must verify that the adhesives used are not subject to yellowing.
    • Immediately clean excess grout from surface, as per the adhesive manufacturer’s instructions.
    • Immediately clean excess adhesive from the surface, as per the adhesive manufacturer’s instructions.
    • Acetone is never to be used.

Reminder:
For the Revera™ Limited Warranty to apply, the direct and immediate purchaser must register all Revera™ slabs within 30 days of the purchase date from Bedrosians® at www.bedrosians.com. Please visit the Revera™ website for complete warranty details.

Revera Care & Maintenance

Offering the best of both worlds, Revera™ simulates the essence and beauty of natural stone and the durability of man - made products. With its mixed composition of resin and quartz, Revera™ is suitable for countertops, walls, shower walls, residential floors, residential shower floors (velvet and brushed finish only). Interior applications only.

ROUTINE CARE & STUBBORN SPILLS

Revera™ offers minimal care and maintenance. Common household spills should be removed immediately with use of a damp cloth or paper towel and a small amount of mild soap. Once the spill is removed, rinse the surface with clean water and dry thoroughly with a soft cloth or paper towel.

For stubborn or dried spills use a non - abrasive cleaning pad combined with mild soap or a specialized Quartz or Natural Stone Cleaner.

Remove adhered materials such as food, gum, nail polish, or dried paint, by scraping off with a plastic putty knife. Do not use sharp objects on your Revera™. Then clean your Revera™ with a damp cloth and dry.

SEALERS

Though not required, we recommend a quartz sealer for your product, such as STONETECH Quartz & Porcelain Tile Sealer or Miracle Sealants 511 Quartz Counter Top Sealer to ensure ultimate protection for your slabs. Sealers or other topical products may wear off over time causing the gloss to appear dull or inconsistent. Reapply the sealant as indicated by the sealant manufacturer. Check with your fabricator before applying any other sealers, penetrators, or topical treatments to Revera™. Never use products that contain acetone.

CARE FOR VELVET, BRUSHED & HONED FINISHES

Polished Revera™ is the easiest finish to clean. Velvet, brushed and honed finishes are more sensitive to grease and may require extra care during routine cleaning. Metal marks, water marks, fingerprints, and other signs of daily living may be noticeable. Most of these marks can be easily removed with non - abrasive cleaning products.

EXPOSURE TO HEAT

Revera™ is engineered such that it can be damaged or discolored by a sudden and/or rapid change of temperature, especially near the edges. To maintain the beauty, do not place hot cooking appliances or hot cookware such as pots, pans, skillets, crockpots, toaster ovens, and heat lamps directly onto Revera™. Use trivets or hot pads to prevent surface cracking due to thermal shock.

EXCESSIVE FORCE

Quartz is one of the hardest minerals in nature, so your Revera™ will not easily scratch or chip. However, since no surface is indestructible and Revera™ is not scratch or chip-proof, do not use knives or other sharp utensils and objects directly on Revera™. Our recommendation is to use a cutting board and take caution when placing or moving heavy objects on your quartz.

Although very durable, abrupt and heavy force may cause scratches, chips, or cracks in Revera™. Use of a minimum 1/8" bevel on the edge detail profile can reduce the susceptibility for edge chipping. A greater radius is recommended for high traffic areas. Inside corners must have a minimum 3/8" radius. Please reference our Revera™ Installation guide for more detailed information. Please remember it is your responsibility to hire a licensed, professional, and reputable fabricator/tile contractor.

HARSH CHEMICALS

Do not use highly abrasive, alkaline or harsh chemicals/cleaning products as they may etch, dull, or damage the Revera™ surface. Avoid exposing Revera™ to oil or powder - based cleaners, dyes, bluing agents, paint thinners/removers, furniture strippers, chlorinated solvents such a strichloroethane or methylene chloride, oven cleaners, batteries, permanent markers, ink, acetone, nail polish remover, bleach, and/or highly alkaline chemicals with pH over 8. If any of the above - referenced substances come into contact with Revera™, rinse the exposed surface immediately and thoroughly with clean water.

DIRECT SUNLIGHT

Revera™ may discolor if exposed to direct sunlight over a long period of time. Refrain from installing Revera™ on countertops only partially exposed to direct sunlight as a color difference may occur over time.

SOFT METALS

Be careful not to drag soft metals across the surface of Revera™ countertops. Soft metals may leave surface markings. If markings occur, use NanoScrub by AquaMix with a non - abrasive cleaning pad on the affected area and then rinse with clean water.

WARRANTY REGISTRATION

For the limited warranty to apply, the direct and immediate purchaser from Bedrosians® Tile & Stone must register all Revera™ slabs within sixty (60) days of the purchase date. Please visit www.bedrosians.com for warranty registration & complete warranty details.

Enjoy the beauty of your Revera™ slabs now and for many years to come by following our simple care and maintenance regimen!

Zagora collection Maintenance & Care Ceramic Tile with Epoxy Grout

ABOUT ZAGORA TILE

What is Zagora tile?
Zagora is a collection of glazed terracotta tile, known as “zellige.” Zellige tiles are handcrafted by artisans in Morocco using centuries-old techniques and materials. Just as they require experience to make, zellige tiles also require experience to install.

Howis it made?
Our Zagora Collection is handcrafted from start to finish, a process involving several steps. It begins with locally sourced clay that is molded into small blocks, then dried in natural sunlight. Each block is then hand-dipped in glaze, fired in ancient kilns and hand-chiseled into the desired tile shape and size.

What does the finished tile look like?
Because each tile is individually made by hand, each tile is totally unique. You can expect subtle to pronounced color variation from tile to tile, as well as slight size variation. You will also notice “imperfections” due to the raw materials and primitive methods. Crazing is very common, which are hairline cracks in the glaze. Pitting through the glaze, chipped edges and undulating surfaces are also a natural occurance. Rest assured, these are not flaws and the tile is perfectly fine to be installed.

What are the tile sizes?
Zagora is made in four sizes: 4”x4” square field, 2”x6” rectangle field, 2”x2” square mosaic and triangle mosaic. Field tiles are loose, whereas mosaic tiles are on 12”x12” mesh-backed sheets. Square and mosaic tiles are approximately 3/8” thick and rectangle field tiles are 3/4” thick, which should be factored in if you are installing a mix of sizes to create patterns.

Where can Zagora be installed?
Zagora is best suited for interior walls, floors, showers, kitchen or bathroom backsplashes, and vanity countertops. Exterior applications should be in non-freeze/thaw climates only, and include walls, pool waterlines and fountains.

Who should install Zagora? Only installers experienced with zellige or other handmade tile should install Zagora

BEFORE INSTALLING ZAGORA

Before installing in your space, we recommend blending your Zagora tile by unboxing and laying the tile out on the floor or other flat surface exactly how you want it. Disburse the color variation and unique markings until you have the perfect blend. Due to the uneven thickness or the tile, lippage is likely, but if any sharp exposed edges remain after installation, use a tile rubbing stone to soften them. Also, take the lighting in your space into consideration, as the glazed surface is reflective and the color variations may be more—or less—pronounced.

INSTALLATION MATERIALS

What type of mortar should I use?
For ceramic tiles, a multi-purpose thin-set mortar is recommended and for ceramic tile mosaics, a premium thin-set mortar is recommended. White or grey mortar is commonly recommended for all ceramic tile installations. Ensure you follow the thin-set mortar manufacturer’s guidelines with precision.

Do I need to use a sealer?
Zellige tiles are not pre-sealed and can be porous, making them susceptible to grout staining. Therefore, use of an impregnating or penetrating sealer must be applied to these tiles prior to grouting or grout release must be used.

What are some recommendations for grout?
Avoid using setting materials from different production batches and check for bag-to-bag color consistency. For any non-polished or non-honed ceramic tile, a cement, urethane, or epoxy grout may be used. Most commonly, cementitious grout is used. For cementitious grout, treat the grout joints with a penetrating sealer to minimize staining and discoloration over time.

Do I need a specific substrate?
Pursuant to the TCNA, for tile installations, special attention should be given to substrate stability, rigidity and preparation. Substrates should be sufficiently flat to allow uniform coverage and avoid excessive mortar thickness. Clean the surface well to remove all dirt and residue and remediate all cracks or unlevel areas in the substrate to ensure it is smooth and flat prior to installation. Install over a cured concrete surface or suitable subfloor like Hardibacker or Ditra. Wall installation on drywall is acceptable when installed with appropriate non-sag setting materials.

REGULAR MAINTENANCE AND CARE

Routine, daily maintenance of tile surfaces will involve keeping dirt, dust and other soiling from building up. Spills, food and other potential staining materials need to be cleaned up in a reasonable period of time. Regular sweeping and light damp mopping is advisable. For larger installations these processes remain the same; only the scale will change.

Highly alkaline, acidic, ammonia based, abrasive cleaners, or bleach may damage some stone, tile and/or grout surfaces and may also degrade an applied sealer, adversely affecting stain repellency. The use of a gentle cleaner specifically formulated for stone, tile and grout maintenance is the best assurance of not harming the tile, grout or degrading any applied sealers.

Maintenance Cleaning

Epoxy and single component grouts are generally impervious to water- and oil-based staining. Maintenance cleaning is required for dirt and dry soil removal. Both routine damp mopping and monthly scrub cleanings of tile surfaces can be accomplished with STONETECH® Stone & Tile Cleaner. Cleaning can be accomplished using a bucket and mop while a wet/dry vacuum is helpful for cleaning big floors. For commercial applications a swing machine fitted with a brush or pad or an auto-scrubber will help maintain larger installations.

For routine cleaning of tile and epoxy grout:

STONETECH® Stone & Tile Cleaner (Concentrate)

Read entire label before using. Use only as directed. Be sure surfaces to be cleaned are swept or vacuumed to remove loose debris. Avoid skin and eye contact with product. Wear protective eyewear and gloves when handling concentrate. Keep children and pets out of the area during application and drying.

  • 1. Dilute STONETECH Stone & Tile Cleaner (Concentrate) with warm water according to the following mixing chart:
    Use STONETECH® Stone & Tile Cleaner (Concentrate) Warm Water
    Light Duty 1 part 64 parts
    Heavy Duty 1 part 32 parts
  • 2. Apply mixed solution with a damp mop, sponge or appropriate professional cleaning equipment
  • 3. Clean entire area with mop, changing cleaning solution often to ensure that soil is not redeposited. Wipe or rinse cleaned area.
  • 4. Let area dry completely before using.

STONETECH® Stone & Tile Cleaner (Ready-To-Use)

Read entire label before using. Use only as directed. Be sure surfaces to be cleaned are swept or vacuumed to remove loose debris. Avoid skin and eye contact with product. Wear protective eyewear and gloves when handling concentrate. Keep children and pets out of the area during application and drying.

  • 1. Spray or pour directly onto soiled area.
  • 2. Wipe clean with a dry towel, lint free cloth or sponge. No need to rinse.
  • 3. Repeat for heavily soiled areas using a non-abrasive scrubbing pad.
  • 4. Wipe clean with a dry towel.

Refer to data sheet DS 211.0 for more information.

NEW INSTALLATION PRE-GROUT TREATMENT

Epoxy grouting cleanup is often easier when the stone is sealed prior to grouting. Some ceramic, porcelain, and quarry tiles are porous or have a textured surface which would benefit from sealing prior to grouting.

A simple water test can be performed to identify if the tile is porous. If the tile darkens after applying water to the surface and waiting for 5 minutes, the tile is absorbent and applying a sealer prior to grouting may aid in clean up after grouting. Typically, ceramic, porcelain, or quarry tile that does not darken with water has a low absorption rate, so a single application of sealer is sufficient as a pre-grouting treatment. Matte finish or textured porcelain tile may also benefit from the use of a pre-grout treatment.

For a pre-grout of ceramic, porcelain or quarry tile:

STONETECH Stone, Tile & Grout Sealer

Pre-Grout Sealer Application

Read the entire label before using. Use only as directed. Always test in a small inconspicuous area with a 24-hour cure time to determine ease of application and desired results. Allow new grout installations to cure for a minimum of 72 hours prior to application. Make sure the surface is clean and free of waxes and coatings. Sealer may be applied to damp surfaces one hour after standing water has been removed. Surface temperature should be between 50°F - 80°F (10°C - 26°C). Ensure that the area is well-ventilated during application and until the surface is dry. Keep children and pets out of the area until foot traffic resumes.

  • 1. Ensure the cap is closed and sealed, and shake well before use.
  • 2. Mask off surfaces not intended to be treated.
  • 3. Liberally apply an even coat of STONETECH Stone, Tile & Grout Sealer using a paint pad, roller, brush or low-pressure sprayer.
  • 4. Allow the sealer to penetrate the surface for 10-15 minutes. During this time, keep the surface wet with sealer, adding more sealer as needed. DO NOT ALLOW SEALER TO COMPLETELY DRY ON THE SURFACE.
  • 5. Thoroughly wipe dry the entire surface with clean absorbent towels.
  • 6. A second coat may be needed for porous, absorbent surfaces. If a second coat is required, it should be applied within 30-40 minutes from the initial application as directed in steps 3-5.
  • 7. Should a sealer residue appear, rewet the impacted section of the surface with sealer. Agitate the surface with a white nylon scrubbing pad to loosen residue and wipe dry with a clean, absorbent towel.
  • 8. A full cure is achieved in 24-72 hours. Use of the treated surface may resume in 6-8 hours. If use of the surface must resume sooner, cover the treated surface with red rosin paper to protect it until full cure is achieved.
  • 9. Clean tools used during application with water.

Refer to data sheet DS 278.0 for more information. If another STONETECH natural look sealer is used, please follow the instructions stated on the product data sheet or label.

RESTORATIVE DEEP CLEANING

Stone, tile and grout installations can become heavily soiled over time. Restorative cleaning procedures will help return these surfaces to a more acceptable appearance.

The following restorative surface cleaning processes are done in preparation for resealing or for specialized surface cleaning circumstances. These cleaning processes should not damage the surface of the tile or grout. However, these types of heavy duty cleaning methods may degrade or strip many sealers from the application.

Depending on the type of soiling or staining, select one of the following options:

For cleaning grease, oil, dirt, dry soil, or to prepare for resealing:

STONETECH® KlenzAll™ Cleaner (Concentrate)

Read entire label before using. Use only as directed. Always test in a small inconspicuous area to determine ease of use and desired results. Be sure all surfaces to be cleaned are swept or vacuumed to remove loose debris. Avoid skin and eye contact with product. Wear protective eyewear, gloves, long sleeves, and long pants while handling concentrate. Ensure work area is well-ventilated during application and until surface is dry. Keep children and pets out of the area during application and drying.

The following is a restorative surface cleaning process which is done in preparation for resealing or for specialized surface cleaning circumstances. This process should not damage the stone surface, however, this type of heavy duty cleaning will degrade or strip many sealers from the application.

  • 1. Dilute concentrated STONETECH® KlenzAll™ Cleaner with warm water according to the following mixing chart:
    Use STONETECH® KlenzAll™ Cleaner (Concentrate Warm Water pH
    Light Duty 1 part 8 parts 10.7
    Medium Duty 1 part 4 parts 11
    Heavy Duty 1 part 2 parts 11.3
  • 2. Apply mixed solution with a mop, clean cloth or low-pressure sprayer. Avoid applying cleaner on unintended surfaces.
  • 3. Lightly scrub with a scrub brush or floor machine as needed.
  • 4. Remove STONETECH KlenzAll Cleaner using a clean cloth, wet/dry vacuum or damp mop.
  • 5. Rinse area well with clean water. Allow area to dry completely.
  • 6.Some surfaces may require additional cleaning. If so, repeat steps 2 – 5 above.
  • 7. Reseal cleaned area with STONETECH Stone, Tile & Grout Sealer, if appropriate

Refer to data sheet DS 215.0 for more information.

Removal of efflorescence, mineral deposits, and calcium based staining:

STONETECH Restore™ Acidic Cleaner

Read entire label before using. Use only as directed. Always test in a small inconspicuous area to determine required dilution and results. Be sure all surfaces to be cleaned are swept or vacuumed to remove loose debris. Heavy duty dilution may darken some surfaces. This acid-based cleaner will etch or damage most marble, limestone and travertine surfaces. Will etch or corrode most metal surfaces. Avoid skin and eye contact. Wear protective eyewear, gloves, long sleeves, and long pants while handling product. Ensure work area is well-ventilated during application and until surface is dry. Keep children and pets out of the area during application and drying.

  • 1. Dilute concentrated STONETECH Restore™ Acidic Cleaner with warm water according to the following mixing chart:
    Use STONETECH® KlenzAll™ Cleaner (Concentrate) Warm Water pH
    Light Duty 1 part 16 parts 1.4
    Medium Duty 1 part 4 parts 1.2
    Heavy Duty 1 part 1 parts < 1
  • 2. Mask off and protect any metals or other surfaces not intended to be treated. Apply mixed solution with a clean mop, or towel.
  • 3. Agitate with a scrub brush or floor machine as needed.
  • 4. Remove STONETECH® Restore™ Cleaner using a clean cloth, wet/dry vacuum or damp mop.
  • 5. Rinse area well with clean water and wipe dry.
  • 6. Thoroughly rinse all metal surfaces with clean water. Clean and rinse equipment with water.
  • Reseal cleaned area with STONETECH Stone, Tile & Grout Sealer, if appropriate.

Refer to data sheet DS 216.0 for more information.

Removal of epoxy grout hazes, stripping topical coatings, acrylic finishes or heavy waxes:

STONETECH® Epoxy Grout Haze & Coating Stripper

Read entire label before using. Use only as directed. Test in a small inconspicuous area to determine ease of application and desired results. Be sure all surfaces to be cleaned are swept or vacuumed to remove loose debris. Ensure work area is well-ventilated during application and until surface is dry. Keep children and pets out of the area until surface use resumes. Avoid contact with surfaces not intended to be treated. Avoid applying in direct sunlight. Should not be used in extreme temperatures. Recommended application temperature range is between 50°F - 90°F (10 °C - 32 °C). DO NOT USE STONETECH Epoxy Grout Haze & Coating Stripper to remove SPECTRALOCK 1 grout haze. Please refer to TDS 411 for removal of grout haze from SPECTRALOCK 1

  • 1. SHAKE WELL BEFORE USING. Do not dilute before applying.
  • 2. Wear rubber gloves and eye protection during handling and application to prevent skin and eye contact.
  • 3. Liberally apply an even coat of STONETECH Epoxy Grout Haze & Coating Stripper over the required area with a paint brush, mop or paint pad. DO NOT APPLY WITH A SPRAYER. Immediately remove STONETECH Epoxy Grout Haze & Coating Stripper from unintended surfaces with a wet cloth to prevent potential damage to those surfaces.
  • 4. Application time will vary depending on type of coating being removed. Approximate application times are as follows:
    Haze / Coating Surface Type Age of Haze/Coating
    24 Hour 7 Days >7 Days
    Epoxy Grout Haze Tile 1 – 3 minutes 3 – 5 minutes 10 minutes
    Epoxy Grout Haze Natural Stone & Masonry 1 – 3 minutes 3 – 5 minutes 10 minutes
    Coatings * Tile 1 – 5 minutes
    Coatings * Natural Stone & Masonry 1 – 5 minutes 10 minutes
  • 5. Do not let STONETECH Epoxy Grout Haze & Coating Stripper dry on the surface. If STONETECH Heavy Duty Epoxy Grout Haze & Coating Stripper starts to dry, add additional product to keep surface wet
  • 6. Agitate surface with a nylon scrub brush or pad after testing a small area first to make sure that brush or pad will not scratch the surface. Surface can be wet with water to enable easier removal of coating.
  • 7. Wipe up residual STONETECH Epoxy Grout Haze & Coating Stripper Coating Stripper with clean, dry cloth or wet mop. A wet/dry vacuum can be used for larger area.
  • 8. Rinse surface well with clean water.
  • 9. More than one application may be required, repeat steps 3 through 8 when necessary.
  • 10. Surface traffic may begin 2 hours after removal of coating.

Refer to data sheet DS 116.4 for more information.

For spot or small area deep cleaning

STONETECH® DeepKlenz™ Cleaner

Read entire label before using. Use only as directed. Test in a small inconspicuous area to determine required results. Be sure all surfaces to be cleaned are swept or vacuumed to remove loose debris. Avoid skin and eye contact with product. Wear protective eyewear, gloves, long sleeves, and long pants while handling concentrate. Ensure work area is well-ventilated during application and until surface is dry. Keep children and pets out of the area during application and drying. Recommended application temperature range is between 40°F - 100°F (4°C - 38°C)

  • 1. Thoroughly wet surface by directly spraying onto soiled area.
  • 2. Allow STONETECH® DeepKlenz™ Cleaner to work on the surface for 5-10 minutes. Do NOT allow product to dry on the surface.
  • 3. Lightly scrub with a stiff bristle brush to remove the surface contaminants.
  • 4. Rinse and wipe surface with clean cloth and warm water. Repeat as needed for heavy soiled areas.
  • 5. Reseal cleaned area with STONETECH Stone, Tile & Grout Sealer, if appropriate.

Refer to data sheet DS 111.2 for more information.

For cleaning and removing soap scum:

STONETECH Soap Scum Remover

Read entire label before using. Use only as directed. Always test in a small inconspicuous area to determine ease of use and desired results. Be sure surfaces to be cleaned are swept or vacuumed to remove loose debris. Avoid skin and eye contact. Wear protective eyewear and gloves. Keep children and pets out of the area during application and drying.

  • 1. Spray STONETECH Soap Scum Remover directly on soiled areas. Avoid applying onto unintended surfaces.
  • 2. Wipe surface with clean, dry cloth or scrub with stiff nylon brush as needed.
  • 3. Rinse area well with clean water.
  • 4. Wipe area dry with clean cloth.
  • 5. Repeat as needed for heavily soiled areas.

Refer to data sheet DS 229.0 for more information.

For cleaning and removing mold and mildew:

STONETECH Mold & Mildew Stain Remover

Read entire label before using. Use only as directed. Always test in a small inconspicuous area to determine ease of use and desired results. Be sure surfaces to be cleaned are swept or vacuumed to remove loose debris. Avoid skin and eye contact. Wear protective eyewear and gloves. Keep children and pets out of the area during application and drying. Do not mix this product with other household cleaners or metals.

  • 1. Spray STONETECH Mold & Mildew Stain Remover directly on soiled areas. Avoid applying onto unintended surfaces.
  • 2. Clean surface with non-abrasive sponge or stiff nylon brush as needed.
  • 3. Rinse area well with clean water.
  • 4. Repeat as needed for heavily soiled areas.

Refer to data sheet DS 219.0 for more information.

For oil stain removal:

STONETECH Oil Stain Remover

Read entire label before using. Use only as directed. Always test in a small inconspicuous area to determine that the desired results will be achieved. Make sure surface is clean, dry, and free of waxes and coatings. Ensure that area is well-ventilated and keep children and pets away from the area during application and until surface is clean and dry.

  • 1. Using a plastic or wood spatula, stir thoroughly to mix the paste.
  • 2. Apply a ¼” (6 mm) thick layer of paste to the stain. Ensure that the paste extends at least 1” - 2” (25 – 50mm) beyond the edge of the stain.
  • 3. Do not cover.
  • 4. Allow 48 – 72 hours for STONETECH® Oil Stain Remover to dry.
  • 5. Using a plastic spatula, remove the dried STONETECH Oil Stain Remover and discard.
  • 6. Allow solvent to completely dry from the stone.
  • 7. If stain is not completely gone after drying, repeat process.
  • 8. Clean up residue and tools with mineral spirits.
  • 9. Once the surface is dry, reseal the cleaned area with STONETECH Stone, Tile & Grout Sealer, if appropriate.

Refer to data sheet DS 214.0 for more information.

SEALING AND PROTECTING:

Ceramic, quarry and porcelain tiles have traditionally been impervious to liquid stains from both oil and water-based materials and most do not require sealing. However, there are now porcelain, quarry and ceramic tile that may exhibit porosity and can benefit from sealing. Test the tile for porosity (see the section “New Installation Pre-Grout Treatment” for directions) or consult with the tile manufacturer to determine if sealing is required.

STONETECH Stone, Tile & Grout Sealer (Applies to tile which will accept a sealer)

cure time to determine ease of application and desired results. Allow new grout installations to cure for a minimum of 72 hours prior to application. Make sure surface is clean and free of waxes and coatings. Sealer may be applied to damp surfaces one hour after standing water has been removed. Surface temperature should be between 50°F - 80°F (10°C - 26°C). Ensure that the area is well-ventilated during application and until the surface is dry. Keep children and pets out of the area until foot traffic resumes.

  • 1. Ensure the cap is closed and sealed and then shake well before use.
  • 2. Mask off surfaces not intended to be treated.
  • 3. Liberally apply an even coat of STONETECH Stone, Tile & Grout Sealer using a paint pad, roller, brush or low-pressure sprayer.
  • 4. Allow the sealer to penetrate the surface for 10-15 minutes. During this time, keep the surface wet with sealer, adding more sealer as needed. DO NOT ALLOW SEALER TO COMPLETELY DRY ON THE SURFACE.
  • 5. Thoroughly wipe dry the entire surface with clean absorbent towels.
  • 6. A second coat may be needed for porous, absorbent surfaces. If a second coat is required, it should be applied within 30-40 minutes from the initial application as directed in steps 3-5.
  • 7. Should a sealer residue appear, rewet the impacted section of the surface with sealer. Agitate the surface with a white nylon scrubbing pad to loosen residue and wipe dry with a clean, absorbent towel.
  • 8. A full cure is achieved in 24-72 hours. Use of the treated surface may resume in 6-8 hours. If use of the surface must resume sooner, cover the treated surface with red rosin paper to protect it until full cure is achieved.
  • 9. Clean tools used during application with water.

Refer to data sheet DS 278.0 for more information. If another STONETECH natural look sealer is used, please follow the instructions stated on the product data sheet or label.

Kahakai Installation, Care & Maintenance Instructions

When properly installed and maintained, Kahakai mosaics can be enjoyed for many years. Please be sure to familiarize yourself and the installer with these instructions prior to starting your job. You and your installer are responsible for ensuring proper installation of the tiles. If you have any questions, contact [email protected] before moving forward.

Recommended Installation Products & Tools

Recommended Adhesives

Due to the translucent nature of glass tile, the color of the thin-set (tile bond coat) will affect the appearance of the installed tile. We recommend the use of specific white thin-sets, some mixed with a specific latex admix. However, these products will vary in their degree of whiteness and color consistency. Confirm the thin-set color is acceptable prior to installation. For projects that require multiple bags of thin-set, select a color controlled product or confirm bag-to-bag color consistency. A full list of recommended adhesives can be found in the installation document.

Recommended Grout

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Depending on the product line and tile color type, the recommended grout will differ. Please download the PDF for a full chart and explanation of the different types of grout available.

Recommended Wet Saw Cutting Blades

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Kahakai mosaics can be cut to meet jobsite dimensions with the use of a high-quality wet tile saw equipped with a continuous, smooth-rim, diamond glass tile blade. A full list of recommended blades and tools are available in the PDF.

Preparation and Installation Instructions

Substrate

Pursuant to the TCNA, for glass tile installations, special attention should be given to substrate stability, rigidity and preparation. Substrates should be sufficiently flat to allow uniform coverage and avoid excessive mortar thickness. Clean the surface well to remove all dirt and residue and remediate all cracks or unlevel areas in the substrate to ensure it is smooth and flat prior to installation. Glass tiles should not be installed on single-float (one coat) mortar bed walls framed with wood or metal, and glass tile should never be bonded directly to wood substrates. For above-ground slabs, reinforced mortar beds may be required, especially for large-format glass tiles. Mortar bed substrates should be cured a minimum of 7 days prior to glass tile installation.

When installing Kahakai adjacent to thicker materials, with the intention of the two tiles finishing in the same plane (flush), the substrate must be brought up to a level such that the glass tile can be installed with the recommended amount of thin-set. Please download the PDF for full instructions depending on different variations.

Installation

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Full instructions can be found by downloading the PDF which should be read and understood before beginning any work. These instructions are provided as a general guideline for the installation of Kahakai tape-faced mosaic, paper-faced mosaic and unmounted cast glass tile over concrete tanks. Some installations require a more detailed specification. An experienced, professional tile installer, who is familiar with the following procedures, should perform the work.

Movement Joints

Install movement provisions according to the current edition of the “TCNA Handbook For Ceramic, Glass & Stone Tile Installation” method EJ171. A flexible sealant, recommended for submerged applications, is required between the tile and all restraining abutments (e.g. the decking/coping), at all inside corners and directly over any joints in the concrete tank. For glass tile, in-field movement joints are required at a maximum spacing of 8’ on center.

Care and Maintenance Instructions

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Proper care and maintenance is crucial to the long-term appearance and performance of pools and water features. Download the full PDF for recommended products and techniques for the cleaning, sealing and protection of most pool and exterior tile.

Cement Tile Installation, Care & Maintenance Instructions

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When properly installed and maintained, cement tiles can be enjoyed for many years. Please be sure to familiarize yourself and the installer with these instructions prior to starting the job. You and your installer are responsible for ensuring proper installation and sealing of the tiles. If you have any questions, contact [email protected] before moving forward.

Recommended Installation Products & Tools

Recommended Adhesives

A high quality, medium-bed mortar is recommended. White mortar is commonly recommended. Avoid using setting materials from different production batches and check for bag-to-bag color consistency. Cement tiles are not intended for installation methods employing large quantities of water.

These are some recommended setting materials:

  • ARDEX X 5™ Flecible Tile and Stone Mortar
  • LATICRETE® 4-XLT
  • BOSTIK Single Flex

Recommended Sealers

Cement tiles are not pre-sealed at the factory. Therefore, use of an impregnating or penetrating sealer specifically designed for porous materials must be applied to the tiles prior to installation and post-grouting. Cement tiles must be sealed twice: pre-installation and post-grouting.

  • Miracle Sealants 511 Porous Plus- recommended for pre-installation and post-grouting.
  • Drytreat STAIN-PROOF - recommended only for post-grouting.
    • This sealer is specifically for stain proofing. It is a solvent base and does not enhance the color of the tiles.
  • Drytreat Intensifia- recommended only for post-grouting.
    • This sealer is specifically for enhancing color, it is not a solvent although it does provide stain proofing.

Recommended Grouts

We advise against using dark colored grout with ligh-colored tiles and vice versa. Grout can stain the tiles and be difficult to remove so be sure the grout matches the color of the cement tile as closely as possible.

Recommended Edge Protection

  • The edge treatment may be used in replacement of bullnose or trim.
  • Schluter 11/16” edge treatment

Recommended Wet Saw Cutting Tools

  • Alpha 10” Porcelana Blade #PT101A+-Continuous Rim (TLSPT10A); or
  • BCE 10” Supreme Granite/Porcelain Blade-Continuous Rim (BCEDB10POR)

Preparation and Installation Instructions

Storage

Do not allow the boxes to get wet! Store the material in a dry area. Moisture or dampness can cause staining, fading, or effervescence causing a white powdery effect on the surface of the tile. If installing cement tiles inside, allow the tiles to season in their final environment prior to installation.

Cutting

Be sure not to damage the finished surface or corners of the tile. Use a sharp diamond blade in conjunction with water to avoid chipping of edges. Do not push the tiles through; let them move naturally through the blade. Use recommended cutting tools referenced above.

Application

These encaustic cement tiles may be installed in many different applications. They are not recommended for pools/spas or exterior Commercial floors.

Substrate

Pursuant to the TCNA, for tile installations, special attention should be given to substrate stability, rigidity and preparation. Substrates should be sufficiently flat to allow uniform coverage and avoid excessive mortar thickness. Clean the surface well to remove all dirt and residue and remediate all cracks or unlevel areas in the substrate to ensure it is smooth and flat prior to installation. Install over a cured concrete surface or suitable sub-floor like Hardibacker or Ditra. Wall installation on drywall is acceptable when installed with appropriate non-sag setting materials.

Installation

Please see the latest edition of the TCNA Handbook for further instruction.

  • Prior to installation and any cutting, inspect your order carefully. Cement tile is subject to color and tonal variations and it is strongly recommended to blend tiles from different boxes to achieve a uniform effect.
  • Clean the tiles prior to sealing. Only use a pH neutral cleaner; do not use any acids or alkalines to clean the tiles. Ensure the tiles are thoroughly dry prior to sealing.
  • Then seal tiles using one of the above-referenced impregnating or penetrating sealers prior to installation. Apply the sealer in thin layers until the tiles will not soak up any more. Wipe off any excess sealer before it dries and allow the sealer to cure and the tiles to dry for at least 24-48 hours prior to installation. Follow sealer manufacturer’s instructions. When properly sealed, water should bead on the surface of the tile.
  • Before laying the tiles in thinset, wipe the back of the tiles with a damp sponge to remove any concrete dust residue and enable proper adhesion.
  • Installer must conduct a dry mock layout under proper lighting conditions prior to installation by placing glass tiles on the floor for quality and color inspection. It is imperative that the end user inspect the product prior to installation. Once installed, the product is deemed accepted.
  • Installer must blend/mix tiles from several different boxes to achieve an even distribution of color range. These tiles are handmade and subject to color variation so it is imperative that this step is not skipped.
  • Mark out grid lines on the surface to be tiled.
  • The recommended grout joint is 1/16” to 1/8”. Wider joints may be necessary in wet areas or when using floor heating cables. If using spacers, use a soft, flexible spacer.
  • Key in thin-set over the substrate with the flat side of a trowel. Use a ½” x ½” square-notched trowel at a 45° angle to spread the adhesive evenly over the substrate in straight lines.
  • Use the flat side of the trowel to back-butter the tile. Ensure the mortar adhesive is applied to the full back of each tile (100% coverage).
  • Set the tiles into the adhesive according to the marked gridlines, starting from one end and continuing to the other. Do not use a mallet to level the tiles as this may cause the tiles to crack or weaken.
  • Tiles are fully embedded when the thin-set is 1/3 the depth of the tile.
  • Immediately remove any excess adhesive from the surface with a damp cloth or sponge. Do not wait to do this.
  • Wait the thin-set manufacturer’s instructed time before grouting.

Grouting

Please see the latest edition of the TCNA Handbook for further instruction.

  • Once the thinset has cured, spread non-sanded grout with a rubber float, completely filling the joints. Joints should be full and free of voids and pits.
  • Grout should be applied to small areas at a time so that any excess grout on the face of the tiles is wiped off immediately using a damp and clean sponge. Remove any liquid residue with a clean dry cloth. Do NOT spread grout over the entire floor like you would for porcelain or ceramic tile. Grout that sits too long can be difficult to remove from the tile. Do not affix duct tape, gaffer tape or acid tape directly onto the surface of the cement tiles.
  • Rub all joints to ensure even levels of grout within each joint.
  • Before the grout dries, remove any liquid residue with a clean dry cloth. Do not allow water or other liquids to spot, pond or ring on the surface. Do not leave spillages, drips, wet buckets, cups, footmarks, etc. on the surface at any time.

Post-Gouting

  • At least 24-48 hours after grouting, and only after the tiles and grout are completely dry, seal the clean tiles again. Please see above for recommended imgregnating or penetrating sealers to use post-grouting. Follow sealer manufacturer's instructions.
  • Once the sealer has cured and dried, cover the tile immediately with a protective covering to prevent staining and damage during the remainder of construction.

Care and Maintenance Instructions

Routine Cleaning

Specific cleaning and maintenance requirements vary depending on the tile’s surface and texture and any present contaminants. Below are some general cleaning and maintenance guidelines.

  • For ongoing maintenance, clean the tiles regularly with a pH neutral cleaner and buff the tiles with a white pad. A natural patina will occur as the floor is maintained and experiences natural wear.
  • Soap-based detergents may be used, or diluted soft soap if available in your market. Repeated cleaning with soft soap will also help maintain a satin finish to the tiles, and to an extent, acts as a continuous re-sealant.
  • If a cleaning solution other than water is utilized, use only a neutral, non-abrasive and non-acidic cleaner. Avoid use of any harsh cleaning products that contain bleach or acidic chemicals. Avoid the use or placement of anything acidic on these tiles.
  • It is important that the cleaner is a non-oil, non-soap and non-animal fat based product. These products act like a magnet, attracting dirt and dust.
  • Always test cleaning solutions on a small inconspicuous area before proceeding to clean the entire surface area.
  • Spills must be cleaned immediately to prevent staining.
  • Use of properly sized walk-off mats at entrances and sweeping or dust mopping is important to remove abrasive grit.
  • Surface stains can be buffed out by lightly using a 220 or 400 grit sandpaper along with white vinegar.
  • For hard to remove residue, a single disc floor machine with a white pad may be used. Be sure to wet the surface first when using a floor machine and clean any residue immediately.

Resealing

Outdoor or high foot traffic installations must be re-sealed every 2-3 years.

Natural Stone Tile Installation, Care & Maintenance Instructions

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Installation Instructions

Substrate

Pursuant to the TCNA, for natural stone tile installations, special attention should be given to substrate stability, rigidity and preparation. Substrates should be sufficiently flat to allow uniform coverage and avoid excessive mortar thickness. Clean the surface well to remove all dirt and residue and remediate all cracks or unlevel areas in the substrate to ensure it is smooth and flat prior to installation.

Recommended Adhesives

Thin-sets specifically formulated or recommended for stone must be used. White mortar is commonly recommended.

Stone products should be adhered to the substrate by use of a white premium latex modified thin-set mortar. If the stone is mesh-reinforced or water sensitive, a white epoxy adhesive must be used.

These are some recommended setting materials:

  • LATICRETE® LHT (premium latex modified thin-set)
  • ARDEX X 5® (premium latex modified thin-set)
  • LATICRETE® 300 (epoxy adhesive)- specifically for mesh-reinforced stone and water sensitive stones

Recommended Grouts

Non-sanded grout is highly recommended for polished marble, limestone, travertine, and onyx to prevent scratching.

  • LATICRETE® PermaColor
  • ARDEX® FL
  • BOSTIK Sanded and Unsanded

RECOMMENDED CUTTING TOOLS

Wet saw with:

  • DeWalt® Premium Wet Saw Blade or
  • BCE Premium Wet Saw Blade

Recommended Sealants

To protect your natural stone from staining, and discoloration, all natural stone must be sealed before and after grouting. If you do not seal prior to grouting, a grout release must be applied to protect the stone from grout residue. Do not utilize the stone application area until it has been properly sealed. Natural stone should be resealed annually or biannually depending on the type of stone and usage level.

These are some recommended stone sealers:

  • Miracle Sealants® 511 Impregnator
  • Miracle Sealants® Porous Plus
  • StoneTech® Bulletproof

Installation

Please see the latest edition of the TCNA Handbook for further instruction.

  • Installer must conduct a dry mock layout under proper lighting conditions prior to installation by placing stone tiles on the floor for quality and color inspection. It is imperative that the end user inspect the product prior to installation, especially since natural stone has wide variances in color, shading, surface texture, markings, voids, pitting, fissures and veining. Once installed, the product is deemed accepted.
  • Installer must blend/mix tiles from several different boxes to achieve an even distribution of color range. This is especially important for stone tile as wide shading variation may be inherent.
  • Measure the substrate flatness to ensure it is sufficiently level. According to the TCNA, the maximum allowed variation in substrate flatness is 1/8” over a 10’ area. In addition, the substrate flatness cannot exceed 1/16” variation in 24” when measured from the high points in the surface.
  • All remediation of the substrate should be completed prior to installation. This includes, but is not limited to, patching or fixing cracks and damage in the slab, out of level surfaces, crack suppression, scarification, and removal of dirt, oil, paint, grease, and other contaminants. Under no circumstances should thin-set be used to level out an uneven substrate.
  • If you are concerned about water infiltration coming through the substrate which can result in efflorescence, spread a Moisture Vapor Barrier Coating over the substrate prior to installation. Bostik D-250 is suitable for reducing moisture vapor transmission. See “Special Notes on Stone” below for more information on Efflorescence.
  • Mark out grid lines on the surface to be tiled.
  • Key in thin-set over the substrate with the flat side of a trowel. The thin-set must be troweled in the same direction. According to the TCNA, the minimum mortar coverage for stone in wet and dry areas is 95% with no voids exceeding 2 square inches and no voids within 2 inches of tile corners. All corners and edges of the stone tiles must be fully supported and back-buttering is recommended in all areas. Spot bonding is never acceptable.
  • When setting stone tile, firmly and fully embed into the thin-set until the thin-set is 1/3 the depth of the stone tile. Wait the thin-set manufacturer’s instructed time before grouting.
  • Use a penetrating-type sealer on the natural stone, prior to grouting, to protect the stone against grout residue.
  • Once the thin-set has cured, spread grout with a rubber float, completely filling the joints.
  • Following the grout manufacturer’s instructions, use a damp sponge to wipe off excess grout from the stone’s surface and rub all joints to ensure even levels of grout within each joint. Repeat with a clean sponge. Before the grout cures, remove any liquid residue with a clean dry cloth.
  • Once the grout has cured, re-seal the stone tiles and seal the grout joints. Do not utilize the area where you’ve installed the stone, until it has been sealed.
  • Natural stone must be resealed, typically every year or every other year, depending on the level of use and porosity of the stone.

Movement Joints

Since stone expands and contracts, a 100% silicon caulking is recommended in all corners where the stone meets the floor or wherever there is a change of plane.

Care and Maintenance Instructions

Routine Cleaning

Specific cleaning and maintenance requirements vary depending on the stone tile’s surface and texture and any present contaminants. Below are some general cleaning and maintenance guidelines.

  • Sweep, vacuum or use a soft lint-free cloth to wipe loose durt and dust from the surface of the stone.
  • Mop or wipe the surface with a pH neutral stone specific solution using a clean sponge, cloth or mop. Use only a neutral, non-abrasive and non-acidic cleaner. Do not use vinegar or any cleanrs containing ammonia, bleach, acids or strong alkalis. Stones with a polished finish are especially sensitive to harsh chemicals. It is important that the cleaner is a non-oil, non-wax, non-soap and non-animal fat based product. These products act like a magnet, attracting dirt and dust.
  • Rinse the stone thoroughly with clean water to remove any leftover cleaning solution.
  • Dry the stone with a clean cloth to increase shine and prevent water spots.
  • Always clean up spills quickly.
  • To remove soap scum or water deposits, a minimally abrasive cleanser and a soft to medium bristle brush cane used.
  • Always test cleaning solutions on a small inconspicuous area before proceeding to clean the entire surface area.

Special Notes on Stone

  • Water Sensitive Stones: Some types of green and black-colored marbles such as Green Serpentine and Black Nero Marquina are highly water sensitive and will warp or curl when exposed to water or water-based adhesives. Agglomerate stones and Lagos Azul Limestone are also water sensitive and will warp with exposure to unbalanced water. Use an epoxy adhesive for these stone types.
  • Iron Staining: Most slate and white marbles have a naturally occurring percentage of iron randomly throughout the stone. If exposed to moisture, water, or other oxidizers like acids or household bleach, the stone may rust or discolor. Use of a sealer will not prevent this occurrence.
  • Voids or Pitting: Due to normal wear, surface restoration, and/or polishing, cracks and voids may appear or existing fill may detach and fall out. These voids can be readily repaired. For example, since travertine is a capillary filled stone, it usually develops new voids or loosened filler with exposure to high traffic. Once the shallow pores are exposed, clean any loose debri out but do not use sharp instruments that may exacerbate the hole. Seal the surrounding area of the stone and fill the hole using sanded or epoxy grout in a color that matches the stone. Once the void has been filled and the grout has dried, the stone should be resealed.
  • Efflorescence: Efflorescence is the evaporation of soluble salts on the surface of stone tile, which appear as a white and cloudy residue. The soluble salts migrate from soil or masonry to the surface of the stone and grout joints where the water evaporates. Natural stones are not generally the source of efflorescence, however, they can sometimes provide efficient paths for the migration. Efflorescence can occur in all stone varieties, but is accentuated in darker stones. Use of a soft to medium bristle brush will clean off the cloudy residue but will not prevent the reoccurrence of efflorescence.
  • Slate Flaking: The foliated layers on slate tend to flake post-installation as the stone settles, potentially exposing different colors or textures. This is not a defect in the stone and the flaking will eventually subside. No remedy is necessary.

Glass Tile Installation, Care & Maintenance Instructions

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Please note: These instructions are not applicable to the Kahakai Collection. Please refer to the section labeled "Kahakai" for collection specific information.

Recommended Installation Products & Tools

Recommended Adhesives

Premium modified thinsets specifically formulated or recommended for glass tile must be used. Setting material color consistency and full mortar coverage are essential, especially for translucent glass tiles. White mortar is commonly recommended. Avoid using setting materials from different production batches and check for bag-to-bag color consistency.

These are some recommended setting materials:

  • ARDEX WA™, Epoxy Grout and Adhesive
  • ARDEX X 77™ (cannot be used for large format glass tiles)
  • LATICRETE® 254 Platinum (cannot be used for large format glass tiles)

Recommended Grouts

Non-sanded grout is highly recommended to prevent scratching of the glass.

Recommended Wet saw Cutting Blades

  • DeWalt Premium Glass Blade
  • Alpha Premium Wet Glass Blade or
  • BCE Premium Glass Blade

Preparation and Installation Instructions

Substrate

Pursuant to the TCNA, for glass tile installations, special attention should be given to substrate stability, rigidity and preparation. Substrates should be sufficiently flat to allow uniform coverage and avoid excessive mortar thickness. Clean the surface well to remove all dirt and residue and remediate all cracks or unlevel areas in the substrate to ensure it is smooth and flat prior to installation. Glass tiles should not be installed on single-float (one coat) mortar bed walls framed with wood or metal, and glass tile should never be bonded directly to wood substrates. For above-ground slabs, reinforced mortar beds may be required, especially for large-format glass tiles. Mortar bed substrates should be cured a minimum of 7 days prior to glass tile installation.

Use of a crack isolation membrane is recommended for large format glass tile.

Installation

Please see the latest edition of the TCNA Handbook for further instruction.

  • Installer must conduct a dry mock layout under proper lighting conditions prior to installation by placing glass tiles on the floor for quality and color inspection. It is imperative that the end user inspect the product prior to installation. Once installed, the product is deemed accepted.
  • Installer must blend/mix tiles from several different boxes to achieve an even distribution of color range.
  • Mark out grid lines on the surface to be tiled.
  • Key in thin-set over the substrate with the flat side of a trowel.
  • For small format glass tiles, use a ¼” x ¼” (or 6mm x 6mm) square-notch trowel at a 45° angle to spread the adhesive evenly over the substrate in straight lines. Use the flat side of the trowel to smooth or flatten out the ridges in the thin-set.
  • For large format glass tiles, use a 3/8” x 3/8” square-notch trowel at a 45° angle to spread the adhesive evenly over the substrate in straight lines. Then use the flat side of the trowel to back-butter the tile.
  • Set the tiles into the adhesive according to the marked gridlines, starting from one end and continuing to the other. If the tiles are faced-mounted, set them into the adhesive with the plastic side facing up.
  • When setting mosaics, lightly tap the surface of the tiles with a soft beating block to level out the face of the tiles and firmly embed them into the thin-set. Tiles are fully embedded when the thin-set is 1/3 the depth of the tile. Wait the thin-set manufacturer’s instructed time before grouting.
  • For plastic face-mounted glass tiles, wait a minimum of 72 hours or until the thin-set has completely dried before removing the plastic film from the tiles by pulling diagonally from the corner. For paper face-mounted glass tiles, remove the paper within 30 minutes of installation. If any glue residue remains on the tiles, remove it by wetting the surface with water, waiting 2-5 minutes, and then wiping the residue off.
  • If installing matte glass or mosaics with natural stone, use a penetrating-type sealer prior to grouting.
  • Once the thinset has cured, spread non-sanded grout with a rubber float, completely filling the joints.
  • Following the grout manufacturer’s instructions, use a damp sponge to wipe off excess grout from the tile’s surface and rub all joints to ensure even levels of grout within each joint. Repeat with a clean sponge. Before the grout dries, remove any liquid residue with a clean dry cloth.

Movement Joints

Since glass tile has a high expansion and contraction rate, a 100% silicon caulking is recommended in all corners where the glass tile meets the floor or wherever there is a change of plane. In addition, all glass tile installations require a minimum 1/16” grout joint. Large format glass tiles (any edge greater than 15”), generally require 1/8” to 3/16” grout joint.

Care and Maintenance Instructions

Routine Cleaning

Specific cleaning and maintenance requirements vary depending on the tile’s surface and texture and any present contaminants. Below are some general cleaning and maintenance guidelines.

  • Generally, water and a soft sponge or soft lint-free cloth will remove most contaminants from your tile.
  • If a cleaning solution other than water is utilized, use only a neutral, non-abrasive and non-acidic cleaner. It is important that the cleaner is a non-oil, non-soap and non-animal fat based product. These products act like a magnet, attracting dirt and dust.
  • To remove soap scum or water deposits, a minimally abrasive cleanser and a soft bristle brush can be used.
  • Always test cleaning solutions on a small inconspicuous area before proceeding to clean the entire surface area.

Ceramic and Porcelain Installation, Care & Maintenance Guidelines

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When properly installed and maintained, ceramic and porcelain tiles can be enjoyed for many years. Please be sure to familiarize yourself and the installer with these instructions prior to starting the job. You and your installer are responsible for ensuring proper installation of the tiles. If you have any questions, contact [email protected] before moving forward.

Recommended Installation Products & Tools

Recommended Adhesives

For large format porcelain/ceramic tiles (any one edge greater than 15"), a high quality, large-format thinset mortar (formerly medium-bed mortar) is recommended. For porcelain/ceramic tiles that are not large format, a multi-purpose thinset mortar is recommended. For porcelain/ceramic tile mosaics, a premium thinset mortar is recommended. White or grey mortar is commonly recommended for all porcelain/ceramic tile installations. Ensure you follow the thinset mortar Manufacturer's guidelines with precision.

Recommended thinset mortars for Large Format Tiles:

  • ARDEX X5™
  • LATICRETE® 4-XLT or LATICRETE LHT
  • BOSTIK Big Tile & Stone

Recommended thinset mortars for Non-large format Tiles:

  • ARDEX X4™
  • LATICRETE® 253
  • BOSTIK Porcelain Mate

Recommended thinset mortars for Mosaics:

  • ARDEX X77
  • LATICRETE® 254

Recommended Sealer and Grout Release

Polished and honed tiles are not pre-sealed at the factory.  Therefore, use of an impregnating or penetrating sealer must be applied to these tiles prior to grouting or grout release must be used. It is recommended to use a grout color that matches the most predominant color of the tile.

Recommended sealers:

  • MIRACLE SEALANTS 511 Impregnator
  • STONETECH Bulletproof

Recommended grout release:

  • AQUAMIX Grout Release

Recommended Grouts

  • Avoid using setting materials from different production batches and check for bag-to-bag color consistency.
  • A urethane non-pigmented grout such as Bostik TruColor is highly recommended for polished or honed porcelain tile.
  • For any non-polished or non-honed porcelain/ceramic tile, a cement, urethane, or epoxy grout may be used. Most commonly, cementitious grout is used.
  • For cementitious grout, to minimize staining and discoloration over time, treat the grout joints with a penetrating sealer like Grout Shield.

Recommended Wet Saw Cutting Blades

  • Alpha 10” Porcelana Blade #PT101A+-Continuous Rim (TLSPT10A) or
  • BCE 10” Supreme Granite/Porcelain Blade-Continuous Rim (BCEDB10POR)
  • DeWalt Premium Porcelain Blade-Slotted Rim (DEWDW4764PORBLADE)

Preparation and Installation Instructions

Application

Porcelain and ceramic tiles may be installed in many different applications. It is not recommended to use polished or honed porcelain/ceramic tiles on exterior floors or areas subjected to water or oil/grease exposure. Visit bedrosians.com for information pertaining to specific product collections.

Substrate

Pursuant to the TCNA, for tile installations, special attention should be given to substrate stability, rigidity and preparation. Substrates should be sufficiently flat to allow uniform coverage and avoid excessive mortar thickness. Clean the surface well to remove all dirt and residue and remediate all cracks or unlevel areas in the substrate to ensure it is smooth and flat prior to installation. Install over a cured concrete surface or suitable sub-floor like Hardibacker or Ditra.  Wall installation on drywall is acceptable when installed with appropriate non-sag setting materials.

Installation

Please see the latest edition of the TCNA Handbook for further instruction.

  • Prior to installation and any cutting, inspect your order carefully. Ceramic and porcelain tile is subject to color and shade variations and it is strongly recommended to blend tiles from different boxes to achieve an even distribution of color range
  • Installer must conduct a dry mock layout under proper lighting conditions prior to installation by placing tiles on the floor for quality and color inspection. It is imperative that the end user inspect the product prior to installation. Once installed, the product is deemed accepted.
  • Before laying the tiles in thinset, wipe the back of the tiles with a damp sponge to remove any dust residue and enable proper adhesion.  
  • Mark out grid lines on the surface to be tiled.
  • The minimum recommended grout joint for any large format tiles (any one edge is greater than 15”) is 3/16”. Smaller grout joints void any warranties.
  • Install large format tiles with a large format thinset mortar and no more than a 33% offset.
  • Use of a leveling system is recommended to ensure tiles lay flat and level.
  • Key in thin-set over the substrate with the flat side of a trowel. Use a square-notched trowel at a 45° angle to spread the adhesive evenly over the substrate in straight lines. For mosaic tiles only, use the flat side of the trowel to smooth or flatten out the ridges in the thin-set.
  • Use the flat side of the trowel to back-butter the tile. Ensure the mortar adhesive is applied to the full back of each tile (100% coverage).
  • Set the tiles into the adhesive according to the marked gridlines, starting from one end and continuing to the other.
  • Tiles are fully embedded when the thin-set is 1/3 the depth of the tile.
  • Immediately remove any excess adhesive from the surface with a damp cloth or sponge. 
  • Wait the thin-set manufacturer’s instructed time before grouting.
  • Note: You can use profiles to frame and protect the edges of the tile installation. Ensure you follow Manufacturer’s instructions completely.

Grouting

Please see the latest edition of the TCNA Handbook for further instruction.

  • If installing polished or honed porcelain tile, once the thinset has cured, use a grout release or seal the tile prior to grouting. See above for recommended products. Follow the Manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Then, spread grout with a rubber float, completely filling the joints. Joints should be full and free of voids and pits. This step should not be completed until the thinset has cured.
  • Grout small areas at a time or an area you can comfortably grout within 2 to 3 minutes.  Do not spread grout over the entire floor.  Grout that sits too long will cure on the surface of the tile and create haze issues.
  • Follow the grout manufacturer’s instructions. Immediately clean all grout and residue from the tiles using a sponge and clean water. Acidic or alkaline cleaners should not be used on the tile or the grout joints.
  • Rub all joints to ensure even levels of grout within each joint.

Post-Grouting

  • Once the grout has dried, cover the tile immediately with a protective covering to prevent staining and damage during the remainder of construction.

Care and Maintenance Instructions

Routine Cleaning

Specific cleaning and maintenance requirements vary depending on the tile’s surface and texture and any present contaminants.  Below are some general cleaning and maintenance guidelines.

  • For ongoing maintenance, sweep or vacuum the tiles. 
  • Clean the tiles regularly with a pH neutral cleaner and rinse with clean water. Use only neutral, non-abrasive and non-acidic cleaners. Avoid use of any harsh cleaning products that contain bleach or acidic chemicals. Acid-based cleaners and harsh chemicals may etch the surface of the tile, especially tiles with polished or honed finishes.
  • It is important that the cleaner is a non-oil, non-soap and non-animal fat based product. These products act like a magnet, attracting dirt and dust.
  • Always test cleaning solutions on a small inconspicuous area before proceeding to clean the entire surface area.
  • For hard to remove residue, a single disc floor machine with a white pad may be used. Be sure to wet the surface first when using a floor machine.

Resealing

For polished or honed porcelain tiles installed in high foot traffic applications, it is recommended to re-seal every 2-3 years.

Glass Pool Tiles Installation, Care & Maintenance Instructions

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Please note: These instructions are not applicable to the Kahakai Collection. Please refer to the section labeled "Kahakai" for collection specific information.

Proper care and maintenance is crucial to the long-term appearance and performance of pools and water features. The following information outlines recommended products and techniques for the cleaning, sealing and protection of most pool and exterior tile and is general in nature.

Water Balance

Start-Up:

Source water should be tested prior to filling and adjusted per industry guidelines such as the National Plasterers Council’s “Swimming Pool StartUp Procedures”, available at www.npconline.org. Fill water with low calcium hardness, low pH and/or low alkalinity can be corrosive to plaster, grout, thin-set mortar, concrete, natural stone and metals.

Ongoing Maintenance:

Proper water balance and chemistry is critical for controlling calcium deposits (mineral scale). Water balance is calculated via the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI). The water’s LSI is a numeric expression of the water’s balance and takes into consideration multiple factors. When water is balanced the LSI equals zero and variation between 0.0 and 0.5 is considered acceptable. LSI levels greater than 0.5 may lead to water cloudiness and accelerated mineral scaling. Negative LSI levels may lead to corrosion of cement-based materials (e.g. plaster & grout) and metal surfaces. Pool water chemistry should be measured and maintained by a pool-maintenance professional.

Sealing Porous Materials

Sealers are beneficial for natural stone, masonry (i.e. coping) and cement-based grouts. To protect porous materials and ease maintenance, seal installations with either Oceancare High Performance Penetrating Sealer (natural look) or Oceancare High Performance Enhancing Sealer (color enriching).

Preventing Calcium Build-up

To inhibit the bond of calcium deposits, apply Oceancare Glass & Tile Shield to new and/or clean pool tile. Protected tile surfaces will be easier to maintain and most calcium deposits can be removed with regular brushing or scrubbing, dramatically reducing or even eliminating the need for chemical cleaners or aggressive cleaning methods. For optimum protection, apply Glass & Tile Shield to pool tile every 6 months.

General Maintenance

Pool tile should be brushed or scrubbed as part of a weekly pool maintenance program. Avoid the use of pumice stones or wire brushes, which can damage tile surfaces. To remove waterline scum and grime, apply Oceancare All Purpose Cleaner & Degreaser to the tile surface and scrub with a nylon bristle scrub brush or a 3M White or Blue nylon scrub pad. To remove mineral scale and calcium deposits, apply Oceancare Calcium Releaser to the tile surface and scrub with a nylon bristle scrub brush or a 3M White or Blue nylon scrub pad. Do not use abrasive or acidic cleaners.

Media-Blasting

In cases of heavy calcium deposits, mineral scale or neglected tile, media-blasting may be necessary. Media-blasting is a process in which an abrasive material is pressurized and shot at a surface to remove heavy deposits. This is generally performed by pool tile cleaning specialists through the use of portable media-blasting equipment. An array of blasting media is available, ranging fromglass bead (aggressive) to baking soda (mild). Generally, baking soda or similar hardness blasting media (i.e. kieserite) is aggressive enough to remove scale but is safe for tile (including glass tile). As with all cleaning procedures, this process should be tested in an inconspicuous area to ensure the results will meet your expectations and not damage the tile surface. Once media-blasting is complete, pool tile installations should be sealed, protected and regularly maintained with Oceancare Products.

Warning: Certain acids will damage tile glaze and iridescent glass tile. Care should be taken to protect tile surfaces when using acids in the pool finishing process and when adding acid to the pool water. DO NOT allow products that contain hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, muriatic or phosphoric acid to come in direct contact with the tile. In the case of accidental contact, neutralize immediately with baking soda and water (1lb: 3 gallons).

Note: Always wear personal protection equipment, follow instructions for product use and protect surrounding surfaces when using cleaning or sealing products. Test all products in an inconspicuous area for desired effect.